According to historical research, the first school for black children was built on the corner of Kickapoo and Washington streets. In the early 1900's, the school was moved to North Ragsdale Street. In 1921, the building burned and it was reconstructed.
According to research provided by the Cherokee County Historical Commission, the first Fred Douglass School was built in 1922 for $5,700 on Alberta Street, now Martin Luther King Boulevard. In 1930, this school was moved to the Lincoln Park Addition at a cost of $20,000 - $25,000 and the Alberta Street Elementary School was built.
Historical documents show Fred Douglass High School was constructed on Gaston Street in 1951 at a cost of $306,490. It was located adjacent to the Fred Douglass School and was used as a high school until 1970, the time of integration. When Jacksonville ISD schools integrated after the 1969-70 school year, Fred Douglass High School sat vacant and it burned in 1979. After it burned, the school's remnant were destroyed, and the Fred Douglass campus is now an empty field.
After the Fred Douglass Alumni Association was founded, organizers received a deed for the land from Jacksonville ISD.